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Ficus Elastica: Botanical Photography

Ficus Elastica: Botanical Photography

Source: Ficus Elastica, wikipedia text

Ficus elastica, also called the rubber figrubber bushrubber plant, or Indian rubber bush is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to northeast India and southern Indonesia.

Author Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen 1887

It is a fat bush in the banyan group of figs, growing to 30–40 metres (98–130 ft) (rarely up to 60 metres / 200 feet) tall, with a stout trunk up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) diameter. The trunk develops aerial and buttressing roots to anchor it in the soil and help support heavy branches. It has broad shiny oval leaves 10–35 centimetres (3.9–14 in) long and 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) broad; leaf size is largest on young plants (occasionally to 45 centimetres / 18 inches long), much smaller on old trees (typically 10 centimetres / 3.9 inches long). The leaves develop inside a sheath at the apical meristem, which grows larger as the new leaf develops. When it is mature, it unfurls and the sheath drops off the plant. Inside the new leaf, another immature leaf is waiting to develop.

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As with other members of the genus Ficus, the flowers require a particular species of fig wasp to pollinate it in a co-evolved relationship. Because of this relationship, the rubber plant does not produce highly colourful or fragrant flowers to attract other pollinators. The fruit is a small yellow-green oval fig 1 centimetre (0.39 in) long, barely edible; it will only contain viable seed where the relevant fig wasp species is present.

In parts of India, people guide the roots of the tree over chasms to eventually form living bridges[

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CULTIVATION AND USES

Ficus elastica is grown around the world as an ornamental plant, outside in frost-free climates from the tropical to the Mediterranean and inside in colder climates as a houseplant. Although it is grown in Hawaiʻi, the species of fig wasp required to allow it to spread naturally is not present there.

In cultivation, it prefers bright sunlight but not hot temperatures. It has a high tolerance for drought, but prefers humidity and thrives in wet, tropical conditions. When grown as an ornamental plant hybrids derived from Ficus elastica Robusta with broader, stiffer and more upright leaves are commonly used instead of the wild form. Many such forms exist, often with variegated leaves.

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Most cultivated plants are produced by asexual propagation. This can be done by planting cuttings or air layering. The latter method requires the propagator to cut a slit in the plant’s stem. The wound, which oozes with the plant’s latex sap, is packed with rooting hormoneand wrapped tightly with moist sphagnum moss. The whole structure is wrapped in plastic and left for a few months. When it is unwrapped, new roots have developed from the plant’s auxiliary buds. The stem is severed and the new plant is potted on its own.

It can yield a milky white latex also known as sap, which has been used in some cases to make rubber, but it should not be confused with the Pará rubber tree, the main commercial source of latex for rubber making. This sap is also an irritant to the eyes and skin and can be fatal if taken internally.

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Portrait of a Plant Morphologist

Portrait of a Plant Morphologist

Text From Wikipedia Plant Morphology a Comparative Science

A plant morphologist makes comparisons between structures in many different plants of the same or different species. Making such comparisons between similar structures in different plants tackles the question of why the structures are similar. It is quite likely that similar underlying causes of genetics, physiology, or response to the environment have led to this similarity in appearance. The result of scientific investigation into these causes can lead to one of two insights into the underlying biology:

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  1. Homology – the structure is similar between the two species because of shared ancestry and common genetics.
  2. Convergence – the structure is similar between the two species because of independent adaptation to common environmental pressures.

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Understanding which characteristics and structures belong to each type is an important part of understanding plant evolution. The evolutionary biologist relies on the plant morphologist to interpret structures, and in turn provides phylogenies of plant relationships that may lead to new morphological insights.

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Plant Morphology Photography

Plant Morphology Photography

Text From Wikipedia Plant Morphology

Plant morphology (or phytomorphology) is the general term for the study of the morphology (physical form and external structure) of plants.[1] This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the identification of plants.

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SCOPE

Plant morphology “represents a study of the development, form, and structure of plants, and, by implication, an attempt to interpret these on the basis of similarity of plan and origin.”[2] There are four major areas of investigation in plant morphology, and each overlaps with another field of the biological sciences.

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First of all, morphology is comparative, meaning that the morphologist examines structures in many different plants of the same or different species, then draws comparisons and formulates ideas about similarities. When structures in different species are believed to exist and develop as a result of common, inheritedgenetic pathways, those structures are termed homologous. For example, the leaves of pineoak, and cabbage all look very different, but share certain basic structures and arrangement of parts. The homology of leaves is an easy conclusion to make. The plant morphologist goes further, and discovers that the spinesof cactus also share the same basic structure and development as leaves in other plants, and therefore cactus spines are homologous to leaves as well. This aspect of plant morphology overlaps with the study of plant evolution and paleobotany.

Secondly, plant morphology observes both the vegetative (somatic) structures of plants, as well as the reproductive structures. The vegetative structures of vascular plants includes the study of the shoot system, composed of stems and leaves, as well as the root system. The reproductive structures are more varied, and are usually specific to a particular group of plants, such as flowers and seeds, fern sori, and moss capsules. The detailed study of reproductive structures in plants led to the discovery of the alternation of generations found in all plants and most algae. This area of plant morphology overlaps with the study of biodiversity and plant systematics.

Thirdly, plant morphology studies plant structure at a range of scales. At the smallest scales are ultrastructure, the general structural features of cells visible only with the aid of an electron microscope, and cytology, the study of cells using optical microscopy. At this scale, plant morphology overlaps with plant anatomy as a field of study. At the largest scale is the study of plant growth habit, the overall architecture of a plant. The pattern of branching in a tree will vary from species to species, as will the appearance of a plant as a treeherb, orgrass.

Fourthly, plant morphology examines the pattern of development, the process by which structures originate and mature as a plant grows. While animals produce all the body parts they will ever have from early in their life, plants constantly produce new tissues and structures throughout their life. A living plant always has embryonic tissues. The way in which new structures mature as they are produced may be affected by the point in the plants life when they begin to develop, as well as by the environment to which the structures are exposed. A morphologist studies this process, the causes, and its result. This area of plant morphology overlaps with plant physiology and ecology.

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The I Ching: Pî Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Pî Hexagram

Pî indicates that (under the conditions which it supposes) there is good fortune. But let (the principal party intended in it) re-examine himself, (as if) by divination, whether his virtue be great, unintermitting, and firm. If it be so, there will be no error. Those who have not rest will then come to him; and with those who are (too) late in coming it will be ill.

  • 1. The first SIX, divided, shows its subject seeking by his sincerity to win the attachment of his object. There will be no error. Let (the breast) be full of sincerity as an earthenware vessel is of its contents, and it will in the end bring other advantages.
  • 2. In the second SIX, divided, we see the movement towards union and attachment proceeding from the inward (mind). With firm correctness there will be good fortune.
  • 3. In the third SIX, divided, we see its subject seeking for union with such as ought not to be associated with.
  • 4. In the fourth SIX, divided, we see its subject seeking for union with the one beyond himself. With firm correctness there will be good fortune.
  • 5. The fifth NINE, undivided, affords the most illustrious instance of seeking union and attachment. (We seem to see in it) the king urging his pursuit of the game (only) in three directions, and allowing the escape of all the animals before him, while the people of his towns do not warn one another (to prevent it). There will be good fortune.
  • 6. In the topmost SIX, divided, we see one seeking union and attachment without having taken the first step (to such an end). There will be evil.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram The I Ching: Kun Hexagram The I Ching: Mang Hexagram The I Ching: Sze Hexagram

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The I Ching: Sze Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Sze Hexagram

Sze indicates how, in the case which it supposes, with firmness and correctness, and (a leader of) age and experience, there will be good fortune and no error.

  • 1. The first SIX, divided, shows the host going forth according to the rules (for such a movement). If these be not good, there will be evil.
  • 2. The second NINE, undivided, shows (the leader) in the midst of the host. There will be good fortune and no error. The king has thrice conveyed to him the orders (of his favour).
  • 3. The third SIX, divided, shows how the host may, possibly, have many inefficient leaders. There will be evil.
  • 4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows the host in retreat. There is no error.
  • 5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows birds in the fields, which it will be advantageous to seize (and destroy). In that case there will be no error. If the oldest son leads the host, and younger men (idly occupy offices assigned to them), however firm and correct he may be, there will be evil.
  • 6. The topmost SIX, divided, shows the great ruler delivering his charges, (appointing some) to be rulers of states, and others to undertake the headship of clans; but small men should not be employed (in such positions).

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram The I Ching: Kun Hexagram The I Ching: Mang Hexagram The I Ching: Sung Hexagram

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The I Ching: Sung Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Sung Hexagram

Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in one’s contention, he will yet meet with opposition and obstruction; but if he cherish an apprehensive caution, there will be good fortune, while, if he must prosecute the contention to the (bitter) end, there will be evil. It will be advantageous to see the great man; it will not be advantageous to cross the great stream.

  • 1. The first SIX, divided, shows its subject not perpetuating the matter about which (the contention is). He will suffer the small (injury) of being spoken against, but the end will be fortunate.
  • 2. The second NINE, undivided, shows its subject unequal to the contention. If he retire and keep concealed (where) the inhabitants of his city are (only) three hundred families, he will fall into no mistake.
  • 3. The third SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping in the old place assigned for his support, and firmly correct. Perilous as the position is, there will be good fortune in the end. Should he perchance
  • engage in the king’s business, he will not (claim the merit of) achievement.
  • 4. The fourth NINE, undivided, shows its subject unequal to the contention. He returns to (the study of Heaven’s) ordinances, changes (his wish to contend), and rests in being firm and correct. There will be good fortune.
  • S. The fifth NINE, undivided, shows its subject contending;–and with great good fortune.
  • 6. The topmost NINE, undivided, shows how its subject may have the leathern belt conferred on him (by the sovereign), and thrice it shall be taken from him in a morning.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram The I Ching: Kun Hexagram The I Ching: Mang Hexagram The I Ching: Hsü Hexagram

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The I Ching: Hsü Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Hsü Hexagram

Hsü intimates that, with the sincerity which is declared in it, there will be brilliant success. With firmness there will be good fortune; and it will be advantageous to cross the great stream.

  • 1. The first NINE, undivided, shows its subject waiting in the distant border. It will be well for him constantly to maintain (the purpose thus shown), in which case there will be no error.
  • 2. The second NINE, undivided, shows its subject waiting on the sand (of the mountain stream). He will (suffer) the small (injury of) being spoken (against), but in the end there will be good fortune.
  • 3. The third NINE, undivided, shows its subject in the mud (close by the stream). He thereby invites the approach of injury.
  • 4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject waiting in (the place of) blood. But he will get out of the cavern.
  • 5. The fifth NINE, undivided, shows its subject waiting amidst the appliances of a feast. Through his firmness and correctness there will be good fortune.
  • 6. The topmost SIX, divided, shows its subject entered into the cavern. (But) there are three guests coming, without being urged, (to his help). If he receive them respectfully, there will be good fortune in the end.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram The I Ching: Kun Hexagram The I Ching: Mang Hexagram

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The I Ching: Mang Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Mang Hexagram

Măng (indicates that in the case which it presupposes) there will be progress and success. I do not (go and) seek the youthful and inexperienced, but he comes and seeks me. When he shows (the sincerity that marks) the first recourse to divination, I instruct him. If he apply a second and third time, that is troublesome; and I do not instruct the troublesome. There will be advantage in being firm and correct.

  • 1. The first SIX, divided, (has respect to) the dispelling of ignorance. It will be advantageous to use punishment (for that purpose), and to remove the shackles (from the mind). But going on in that way (of punishment) will give occasion for regret.
  • 2. The second NINE, undivided, (shows its subject) exercising forbearance with the ignorant, in which there will be good fortune; and admitting (even the goodness of women, which will also be fortunate. (He may be described also as) a son able to (sustain the burden of) his family.
  • 3. The third SIX, divided, (seems to say) that one should not marry a woman whose emblem it might be, for that, when she sees a man of wealth, she will not keep her person from him, and in no wise will advantage come from her.
  • 4. The fourth SIX, divided, (shows its subject as if) bound in chains of ignorance. There will be occasion for regret.
  • 5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows its subject as a simple lad without experience. There will be good fortune.
  • 6. In the topmost NINE, undivided, we see one smiting the ignorant (youth). But no advantage will come from doing him an injury. Advantage would come from warding off injury from him.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram The I Ching: Kun Hexagram

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The I Ching: Kun Hexagram

Photo Theme: Botanic Photography

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Kun Hexagram

Kun (indicates that in the case which it presupposes) there will be great progress and success, and the advantage will come from being correct and firm. (But) any movement in advance should not be (lightly) undertaken. There will be advantage in appointing feudal princes.

  • 1. The first NINE, undivided, shows the difficulty (its subject has) in advancing. It will be advantageous for him to abide correct and firm; advantageous (also) to be made a feudal ruler.
  • 2. The second SIX, divided, shows (its subject) distressed and obliged to return; (even) the horses of her chariot (also) seem to be retreating. (But) not by a spoiler (is she assailed), but by one who seeks her to be his wife. The young lady maintains her firm correctness, and declines a union. After ten years she will be united, and have children.
  • 3. The third SIX, divided, shows one following the deer without (the guidance of) the forester, and only finding himself in the midst of the forest. The superior man, acquainted with the secret risks, thinks it better to give up the chase. If he went forward, he would regret it.
  • 4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows (its subject as a lady), the horses of whose chariot appear in retreat. She seeks, however, (the help of) him who seeks her to be his wife. Advance will be fortunate; all will turn out advantageously.
  • 5. The fifth NINE, undivided, shows the difficulties in the way of (its subject’s) dispensing the rich favours that might be expected from him. With firmness and correctness there will be good fortune in small things; (even) with them in great things there will be evil.
  • 6. The topmost SIX, divided, shows (its subject) with the horses of his chariot obliged to retreat, and weeping tears of blood in streams.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram

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The I Ching: Khwân Hexagram

The I Ching Complete, Hexagram by Hexagram with Floral Photography related to each entry.

The I Ching by James Legge, tr. Sacred Books of the East, vol 16, 1899

The Khwân Hexagram

Khwăn (represents) what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and having the firmness of a mare. When the superior man (here intended) has to make any movement, if he take the initiative, he will go astray; if he follow, he will find his (proper) lord. The advantageousness will be seen in his getting friends in the south-west, and losing friends in the north-east. If he rest in correctness and firmness, there will be good fortune.

  • 1. In the first SIX, divided, (we see its subject) treading on hoarfrost. The strong ice will come (by and by).
  • 2. The second SIX, divided, (shows the attribute of) being straight, square, and great. (Its operation), without repeated efforts, will be in every respect advantageous.
  • 3. The third SIX, divided, (shows its subject) keeping his excellence under restraint, but firmly maintaining it. If he should have occasion to engage in the king’s service, though he will not claim the success (for himself), he will bring affairs to a good issue.
  • 4. The fourth SIX, divided, (shows the symbol of) a sack tied up. There will be no ground for blame or for praise.
  • 5. The fifth SIX, divided, (shows) the yellow lower garment. There will be great good fortune.
  • 6. The sixth SIX, divided (shows) dragons fighting in the wild. Their blood is purple and yellow.
  • 7. (The lines of this hexagram are all weak and divided, as appears from) the use of the number six. If those (who are thus represented) be perpetually correct and firm, advantage will arise.

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The I Ching: Khien Hexagram

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